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Present Perfect Simple Si Continuous

Present Perfect Simple

Timpul Present Perfect Simple se formeaza prin conjugarea verbului „to have" la prezent,

la care se adauga forma a treia (participiul trecut) a verbului de conjugat.

 

Afirmativ

I have worked We have worked

You have worked You have worked

He/she/it has worked They have worked

 

Negativ

I have not (haven't) worked.

He/she/it has not (hasn't) worked.

 

Interogativ

Have I worked?

Has he/she/it worked?

Timpul Present Perfect este un timp de relatie. El arata o legatura intre trecut si momentul

prezent.

Timpul Present Perfect Simple se foloseste in urmatoarele situatii:

l arata o actiune inceputa in trecut care continua pâna in prezent. Cu acest sens se

folosesc de obicei prepozitiile since (din, incepând din) si for (de, timp de).

Ex. I haven't seen John for two months.

(Nu l-am vazut pe John de doua luni.)

I haven't seen John since September.

(Nu l-am vazut pe John din septembrie.)

I have known John for two years.

(Il cunosc pe John de doi ani.)

I have known John since 1990.

(Il cunosc pe John din 1990.)

l arata o actiune trecuta, efectuata intr-o perioada de timp neterminata. In acest caz,

folosirea lui este insotita de adverbe precum: today, this week, this month, this year.

Ex. I have seen two films this week.

(Am vazut doua filme saptamâna aceasta.)

Daca adverbul de timp este „this morning", folosirea timpului verbal este conditionata de

momentul in care se face afirmatia; daca aceasta este in cursul diminetii (pâna la ora 12) sau

dupa amiaza.

Ex. ora 10 a.m.

I haven't got up early this morning.

ora 2 p.m.

I didn't get up early this morning.

Traducerea celor doua propozitii in limba româna este identica.

Nu m-am sculat devreme azi dimineata.

l arata o actiune trecuta, terminata, care are rezultate in prezent sau care, dintr-un motiv

sau altul, intereseaza in prezent.

Ex. Have you seen Hamlet?

(Ai vazut Hamlet?)

I have lost my umbrella . I must buy a new one.

(Mi-am pierdut umbrela. Trebuie sa-mi cumpar una noua.)

Trebuie precizat faptul ca, daca se mentioneaza momentul trecut in care a avut loc

actiunea care intereseaza in prezent sau care are rezultate in prezent, nu mai poate fi folosit

timpul Present Perfect. In acest caz, se foloseste Past Simple.

Ex. I lost my umbrella yesterday. I must buy a new one.

De asemenea, daca se pune o intrebate referitoare la trecut care incepe cu „when", nu se

poate folosi timpul Present Perfect, intrucât „when" reprezinta un moment precizat in trecut.

Ex. When did you see Hamlet?

I saw it last week.

Timpul Present Perfect nu poate fi folosit cu un adverb de timp precizat in trecut.

Se foloseste cu adverbe de timp neprecizat care leaga trecutul de prezent.

Adverbe de timp neprecizat care se aseaza intre auxiliar si verb: often, never, seldom,

always, ever, already, just

Ex. Have you ever been to England?

(Ai fost vreodata in Anglia?)

No, I have never been to England.

Yes, I have often been to England.

Adverbe de timp neprecizat care stau la sfârsitul propozitiei: lately, yet (in propozitii

negative).

Ex. He hasn't returned home yet.

(El nu s-a intors inca acasa.)

I haven't seen him lately.

(Nu l-am vazut in ultimul timp.)

Dupa cum se poate observa, timpul Present Perfect Simple se traduce in româneste fie cu

prezentul, fie cu perfectul compus, in functie de context.

 

Present Perfect Continuous

Se formeaza cu Present Perfect Simple al verbului „to be", la care se adauga forma -ing a

verbului de conjugat.

 

Afirmativ

I have been working We have been working

You have been working You have been working

He/she/it has been working They have been working

 

Negativ

I have not (haven't) been working.

He has not (hasn't) been working.

 

Interogativ

Have I been working?

Has he been working?

Timpul Present Perfect Continuous arata o actiune in plina desfasurare, cu accent pe

durata, intre un moment trecut si prezent.

Ex. I am tired because I have been working all day.

(Sunt obosit pentru ca am muncit toata ziua.)

De asemene, poate arata probabilitatea ca actiunea inceputa in trecut, care continua in

prezent, sa continue si in viitor.

Ex. It has been raining for three hours. If it doesn't stop soon, we shall have floods.

(Ploua de trei ore. Daca nu se opreste in curând, vom avea inundatii.)

Ca si Present Perfect Simple, se poate traduce cu prezentul sau cu perfectul compus din

limba româna.

 
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